# help me plz - Practical Statistics

by Lisa
(MD)

Following completion of your readings, answer the following two questions from “Chapter 12 Supplement” of Mathematics in Our World.

1. Select one even problem from exercises 1 through 10 on page 686.
2. Select one even problem from exercises 11 through 22 on pages 687-688.

As you answer the questions above, identify what types of misrepresentation or misuse have been demonstrated by referring to the bold blue headings in the “Chapter 12 Supplement” (e.g., Suspect Samples, Asking Biased Questions, Misleading Graphs, etc.).

The assignment must include (a) all math work required to answer the problems as well as (b) introduction and conclusion paragraphs.

a. Your introduction should include three to five sentences of general information about the topic at hand.

b. The body must contain a restatement of the problems and all math work, including the steps and formulas used to solve the problems.

c. Your conclusion must comprise a summary of the problems and the reason you selected a particular method to solve them. It would also be appropriate to include a statement as to what you learned and how you will apply the knowledge gained in this exercise to real-world situations.

exercises 1 through 10 on page 686.

1. According to a pilot study of 20 people conducted at the University of Minnesota, daily doses of a compound called arabinogalactan over a period of 6 months resulted in a significant increase in the beneficial lactobacillus species of bacteria. Why can’t it be concluded that the compound is beneficial for the majority of people?

2. Comment on this statement taken from a magazine advertisement: “In a recent clinical study, Brand ABC* was proved to be 1950 percent better than creatine!” *Actual brand will not be named.

3. In an ad for women, the following statement was made: “For every hundred women, 91 have taken the road less traveled.” Comment on this statistic.

4. In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say about the product being advertised?

5. An article in a leading magazine stated that, “When 18 people with chronic, daily, whip-lash related headaches received steroid injections in a specific neck joint, 11% had no more headaches.” Think of a possible reason why the figure 11%
was used.

6. In an ad for moisturizing lotion, the following claim is made: “. . . it’s the #1 dermatologist recommended brand.” What is misleading about the claim?

7. An ad for an exercise product stated that, “Using this product will burn 74% more calories.” What is misleading about that statement?

8. “Vitamin E is a proven antioxidant and may help in fighting cancer and heart disease.” Is there anything ambiguous about this claim?

9. “Just one capsule of Brand X* can provide 24 hours of acid control.” What needs to be more clearly defined in this statement? *Actual brand will not be named.

10. “. . . male children born to women who smoke during pregnancy run a risk of violent and criminal behavior that lasts well into adulthood.” Can we infer that smoking during pregnancy is responsible for criminal behavior in people?

BELOW IS FROM PAGE 687 - 688 Exercises 11 -22 Note, I only sent you questions 14 - 22 because questions 11 - 13 had graphs and they wouldn't copy over. So you can just pick one even number to do from numbers 14 - 22.

For Exercises 14–16, explain why each survey question might lead to an erroneous conclusion.

14. “How often do you run red lights?”

15. “Do you think gun manufacturers should put safety locks on all guns sold even though it would increase the cost of the gun by 20%?”

16. “Do you think that it is not important to give extra tutoring to students who are not failing?”

17. The results of a survey reported in USA Weekend stated that: “9% would drive through a toll booth without paying.” “13% would steal cable television or inflate their resumes.” Explain why these figures may not be representative of the population in general.

18. In an article in USA Weekend, this statement was made: “More serious seems to be coffee’s potential to raise blood pressure levels of homocysteine, a protein that promotes artery clogging. A recent Norwegian study found 20% higher homocysteine in heavy coffee drinkers (more than 9 cups a day) than in non-coffee drinkers.” Based on this statement, should we give up our daily cup of coffee?

19. An article in a newspaper with the headline, “Lead: The Silent Killer” listed the
number of confirmed childhood lead poisoning cases in Allegheny County (PA) in
1985 as 15 and in 1997 as 124. Can you conclude that the incidence of childhood
lead poisoning cases is increasing in Allegheny County? Suggest a factor that might
cause an increase in reported lead pois