Help with Final Assignment ( special instructions)
Here is the two questions-which I need help answering:
QUESTION NUMBER 1:
(PAGE 686., #4)In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say
about the product being advertised????
QUESTION NUMBER 2: (For Exercises 14–16, explain why each survey question might lead to an erroneous conclusion).
PAGE 688., 14.) “How often do you run red lights?”
As you answer the questions above, identify what types of misrepresentation or misuse have been demonstrated by referring to the bold blue headings in the “Chapter 12 Supplement” Which I have listed below..., (e.g., Suspect Samples, Asking Biased Questions, Misleading Graphs, etc.).
Asking Biased Questions: By asking a question in a certain way, the researcher can lead the respondents to answer the question the way the researcher wants them to. For example, the question, “Are you going to vote for Candidate Jones, even though the latest survey shows he will lose the election?” may lead the respondent to say, “No” since many people do not want to vote for a loser or admit that they have voted for a loser. Using Confusing Words Using words in a survey question that are not well defined or understood can invalidate the responses. For example, a question such as, “Do you think people would live longer if they
were on a diet?” would mean many different things to people since there are many types of diets, such as low-salt diets, high-protein diets, etc. Asking Double-Barreled Questions Sometimes two ideas are contained in one question, and the respondent may answer one or the other in his or her response. For example, consider the question, “Are you in favor of a national health program and do you think it should be subsidized by a special tax as opposed to other ways to finance it, such as a national lottery?” Here the respondent is really answering two questions. Using Double Negatives Survey questions containing double negatives often confuse the respondent. For example, what is the question “Do you feel that it is not appropriate to have areas where people cannot smoke?” really asking? Other factors that could bias a survey would include anonymity of the participant, the time and place of the survey, and whether the questions were openended
or closed-ended. Participants will, in some cases, respond differently to questions based on whether or not their identity is known. This is especially true if the questions concern sensitive issues such as income, sexuality, abortion, etc. Researchers try to ensure confidentiality rather than anonymity; however, many people will be suspicious in either case. The time and place where a survey is taken can influence the results. For example, if a survey on airline safety is taken right after a major airline crash, the results may differ from those obtained in a year with no major airline disasters. To restate the premise of this section, statistics, when used properly, can be beneficial in obtaining much information, but when used improperly, they can lead to much misinformation. Therefore, it is important to understand the concepts of statistics and use them correctly.
The assignment must include (a) all math work required to answer the problems as well as (b) introduction and conclusion paragraphs; your introduction should include three to five sentences of general information about the topic at hand. The body must contain a restatement of the problems and all math work, including the steps and formulas used to solve the problems. Your conclusion must comprise a summary of the problems and the reason you selected a particular method to solve them. It would also be appropriate to include a statement as to what you learned and how you will apply the knowledge gained in this exercise to real-world situations.