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Help with Final Assignment ( special instructions)

by Kari
(Miami, FL)











































Here is the two questions-which I need help answering:

QUESTION NUMBER 1:

(PAGE 686., #4)In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say
about the product being advertised????


QUESTION NUMBER 2: (For Exercises 14–16, explain why each survey question might lead to an erroneous conclusion).

PAGE 688., 14.) “How often do you run red lights?”


As you answer the questions above, identify what types of misrepresentation or misuse have been demonstrated by referring to the bold blue headings in the “Chapter 12 Supplement” Which I have listed below..., (e.g., Suspect Samples, Asking Biased Questions, Misleading Graphs, etc.).

Asking Biased Questions: By asking a question in a certain way, the researcher can lead the respondents to answer the question the way the researcher wants them to. For example, the question, “Are you going to vote for Candidate Jones, even though the latest survey shows he will lose the election?” may lead the respondent to say, “No” since many people do not want to vote for a loser or admit that they have voted for a loser. Using Confusing Words Using words in a survey question that are not well defined or understood can invalidate the responses. For example, a question such as, “Do you think people would live longer if they
were on a diet?” would mean many different things to people since there are many types of diets, such as low-salt diets, high-protein diets, etc. Asking Double-Barreled Questions Sometimes two ideas are contained in one question, and the respondent may answer one or the other in his or her response. For example, consider the question, “Are you in favor of a national health program and do you think it should be subsidized by a special tax as opposed to other ways to finance it, such as a national lottery?” Here the respondent is really answering two questions. Using Double Negatives Survey questions containing double negatives often confuse the respondent. For example, what is the question “Do you feel that it is not appropriate to have areas where people cannot smoke?” really asking? Other factors that could bias a survey would include anonymity of the participant, the time and place of the survey, and whether the questions were openended
or closed-ended. Participants will, in some cases, respond differently to questions based on whether or not their identity is known. This is especially true if the questions concern sensitive issues such as income, sexuality, abortion, etc. Researchers try to ensure confidentiality rather than anonymity; however, many people will be suspicious in either case. The time and place where a survey is taken can influence the results. For example, if a survey on airline safety is taken right after a major airline crash, the results may differ from those obtained in a year with no major airline disasters. To restate the premise of this section, statistics, when used properly, can be beneficial in obtaining much information, but when used improperly, they can lead to much misinformation. Therefore, it is important to understand the concepts of statistics and use them correctly.


The assignment must include (a) all math work required to answer the problems as well as (b) introduction and conclusion paragraphs; your introduction should include three to five sentences of general information about the topic at hand. The body must contain a restatement of the problems and all math work, including the steps and formulas used to solve the problems. Your conclusion must comprise a summary of the problems and the reason you selected a particular method to solve them. It would also be appropriate to include a statement as to what you learned and how you will apply the knowledge gained in this exercise to real-world situations.

Comments for Help with Final Assignment ( special instructions)

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Oct 31, 2011
Misleading Ads & Biased Survey Questions
by: Staff

----------------------------------------------------
Part IV


QUESTION NUMBER 2: (For Exercises 14–16, explain why each survey question might lead to an erroneous conclusion).

PAGE 688., 14.) “How often do you run red lights?”

This is a good example of a “Biased Question”: asking a question which traps respondents into answering the question the way the researcher wants them to.

This question relies on a common TECHNIQUE USED TO MANIPULATE SURVEY RESULTS.

It is a favorite technique used for political/government/school surveys. It is also used by private business.

This kind of question will usually force you to select answers from among carefully scripted choices, such as: I run red lights once per week, twice per week, more than five times per week, etc. (Just select the best choice from among those listed. If you don’t run red lights, select once per week.)

If you answer this question at all, you automatically admit you make a practice of breaking the law by running red lights, whether that is true or not.

(Suppose you don’t have a driver’s license. Suppose you live in a rural area that does not have red lights. Suppose you live in a large city such as New York or Paris with excellent public transportation. You don’t actually need a car in New York or Paris.)

If you attempt to answer the question by providing an answer which is not one of the “approved” choices, you will probably be accused of not cooperating and may be punished in some way.

To make matters even worse, some of these surveys insist upon putting your name on the survey. They will usually state your answers will be kept confidential (except for “authorized” requests for information from various government agencies). If this is the case, “your name and your survey answers are on file”.

Similar questions are: “When did you stop beating your children/elderly mother/pet/etc.? “Do you want 50,000 helpless women and children to slowly die of starvation, or do you think the government should provide food? How often do you use cocaine? How often do you cheat on school exams?

--------------------------------------------


Thanks for writing.

Staff
www.solving-math-problems.com


Oct 31, 2011
Misleading Ads & Biased Survey Questions
by: Staff

----------------------------------------------------

Part III


Answer:

The answer:

QUESTION NUMBER 1:

(PAGE 686., #4) In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say
about the product being advertised????


The phrase “these results are not typical” means that the average person using the weight loss product will never get the results shown in the ad.

Success story testimonials often exaggerate the benefits of weight loss products by showing “amazing” results.

The phrase “these results are not typical” is included as a disclaimer in advertisements to provide legal protection for the advertisers against possible lawsuits.

However, in October 2009, the Federal Trade Commission issued new guidelines which did not allow advertisers to use the phrase “these results are not typical” for diet ads – UNLESS the AD also STATED the TYPICAL RESULTS purchasers can expect.

Since then, the FTC has issued similar guidelines for other products.

--------------------------------------------

. . . a personal comment . . .

In all fairness, the phrase “typical results” is a little more complex than it might appear.

Many years ago I sold diet products for several months. The products worked well.

However, I can tell you from experience that the “typical” purchaser of diet products does not follow directions, and does not actually use the products for more than a few days.

In a way this is similar to buying a car, driving it around the block a couple of times, and then leaving it in your garage for six months. It is unlikely the car probably would even start after being in the garage for three months, let alone six months.

--------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------

Oct 31, 2011
Misleading Ads & Biased Survey Questions
by: Staff

----------------------------------------------------

Part II

Using Double Negatives Survey questions containing double negatives often confuse the respondent.

For example, what is the question “Do you feel that it is not appropriate to have areas where people cannot smoke?” really asking?

Other factors that could bias a survey would include anonymity of the participant, the time and place of the survey, and whether the questions were open-ended or closed-ended.

Participants will, in some cases, respond differently to questions based on whether or not their identity is known. This is especially true if the questions concern sensitive issues such as income, sexuality, abortion, etc.

Researchers try to ensure confidentiality rather than anonymity; however, many people will be suspicious in either case. The time and place where a survey is taken can influence the results.

For example, if a survey on airline safety is taken right after a major airline crash, the results may differ from those obtained in a year with no major airline disasters.

To restate the premise of this section, statistics, when used properly, can be beneficial in obtaining much information, but when used improperly, they can lead to much misinformation. Therefore, it is important to understand the concepts of statistics and use them correctly.


The assignment must include

(a) all math work required to answer the problems as well as

(b) introduction and conclusion paragraphs;

your introduction should include three to five sentences of general information about the topic at hand. The body must contain a restatement of the problems and all math work, including the steps and formulas used to solve the problems.

Your conclusion must comprise a summary of the problems and the reason you selected a particular method to solve them.

It would also be appropriate to include a statement as to what you learned and how you will apply the knowledge gained in this exercise to real-world situations.

----------------------------------------------------

Oct 31, 2011
Misleading Ads & Biased Survey Questions
by: Staff


Part I

Question:


by Kari
(Miami, FL)



Here are the two questions-which I need help answering:


QUESTION NUMBER 1:

(PAGE 686., #4)In many ads for weight loss products, under the product claims and in small print, the following statement is made: “These results are not typical.” What does this say
about the product being advertised????


QUESTION NUMBER 2: (For Exercises 14–16, explain why each survey question might lead to an erroneous conclusion).

PAGE 688., 14.) “How often do you run red lights?”


As you answer the questions above, identify what types of misrepresentation or misuse have been demonstrated by referring to the bold blue headings in the “Chapter 12 Supplement” Which I have listed below..., (e.g., Suspect Samples, Asking Biased Questions, Misleading Graphs, etc.).

Asking Biased Questions: By asking a question in a certain way, the researcher can lead the respondents to answer the question the way the researcher wants them to.

For example, the question, “Are you going to vote for Candidate Jones, even though the latest survey shows he will lose the election?” may lead the respondent to say, “No” since many people do not want to vote for a loser or admit that they have voted for a loser.

Using Confusing Words Using words in a survey question that are not well defined or understood can invalidate the responses.

For example, a question such as, “Do you think people would live longer if they were on a diet?” would mean many different things to people since there are many types of diets, such as low-salt diets, high-protein diets, etc.

Asking Double-Barreled Questions Sometimes two ideas are contained in one question, and the respondent may answer one or the other in his or her response.

For example, consider the question, “Are you in favor of a national health program and do you think it should be subsidized by a special tax as opposed to other ways to finance it, such as a national lottery?” Here the respondent is really answering two questions.

----------------------------------------------------

Nov 02, 2011
confused
by: michelle

Kari,

i see put forth a major effort and I am very sorry and regret that your two math problems were not answered step by step-just as you
asked for them to be answered. I wish i could answer your questions excactly how you needed them to explained; specially since your great efforts of dictations of trying. I did not see any (step by step) stastistic in any of the staff's answers and wish I could tell you better step by step answers, or at least who could email. Again, I am so sorry, Kari, Good Luck!!!

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